Visit IHI Ishikawajima Archive

石川島資料館を訪ねる
Archive told the fate of Ishikawajima society with IHI industrial development

What’s Ishikawajima all about

Ishikawa logo x01.JPG      I have visited “Ishikawajima Archive”(石川島資料館) just after observing the IHI’s” i-Muse”. This museum was established by Ishikawa Outlook x01.JPGIHI on the purpose to introduce  IHI’s development since its beginning  and the local history of Ishikawajima region from the Edo era to now. It has been titled like -“Area development from Ishikawajima shipyard to IHI Industry corporation “. The museum site is located in the corner of “River IHI- Illust x02City 21″ complex along the Sumida River where’s transformed to the residential area after IHI had moved to the newly reclaimed island Toyosu, Tokyo.  It’s never a big facility, but the exhibits are nice and attractive in contents which show well the  evolving society of Ishikawajima area, as well as a history of shipbuilding industry  in Japan. This short description is my impression of visit.

see HP of Ishikawajima Archive: http://www.ihi.co.jp/shiryoukan/

♣  Exhibition of Ishikawajima Archive of IHI

Nikon Illust x04 Camara and person        The Archive is divided into several  zones. They are the corner of Ishikawa Outlook x02.JPGIshikawajima community in Edo and its area’s involvement to ship building activity (“Ship building”), the corner of IHI’s business situation at the initial Tsukuda and Ishikawajima Plant (“Creating the Times”), the corner of Japan’s development of heavy industries (“Short story of beginning Heavy industry”), and the corner of “Factory Diary” zone that provides the daily appearance of operation in the Ishikawa shipbuilding factory of initial period.   They are elaborately introduced in illustration panels, actual models such as a ship model, diorama exhibitions at factory facilities, and video materials.
The contents of them were as follows.

♣  Exhibition of “Ship building”

 “Ishikawajima” island located at the estuary of the Sumida-gawa river was formally Ishikawa kabuto x01.JPGTUS-Illust 17used as the residence space by the Ishikawa Samurai family for generations. After that, this land had transformed into the workplace of poor people in the Edo era, so called “Ninsoku-Yoseba”( 人足寄場:Special labor camp zone). However, the Edo Shogunate at that time had changed the fate of this island in 1853 because the Shogunate created a shipbuilding yard at this area in the end of the Tokugawa period due to the necessity of maritime protection.

After the Meiji Restoration, Hirano Tomiji, a founder of IHI, was handed Ishikawa hirano x01.JPGover this shipyard for establishment of a private company “Ishikawa Hirano Shipyard”. Since then, this land began going developed as a cradles place Ishikawa factory x04.JPGof the heavy industry based on the shipbuilding industry by IHI. The archive deliberately introduces  this process with various illustrations, panels, and documents.      In the exhibition, the old armor of Ishikawa Shigetsugu, owner of the land in the Edo era, is displayed in the corner and make us to feel the oldness of history of this land.

Ishikawa Ship x01.JPG       Also, a miniature model of Japan’s first steamboat which built at the Hirano Shipyard is exhibited there too. These things will lively remind the appearance of the Ishikawajima shipbuilding factory, as well as the local society since its early time

 

♣  Exhibition of “Creating the Times”

This zone serves as a corner showing the chronological history chart of IHI from the Ishikawa Outlook x03.JPGbeginning of the original Ishikawajima Shipyard in the Meiji era to the its Tsukuda factory in the Showa period, and further until the time of relocation of IHI to current Toyosu region and its business expansion. There, the exhibition shows many models and photographs concerning company’s memorable goods, and try to introduce the details of the technology development of IHI.   Ishikawa Ship x03.JPG      For example, the model of the first screw type steam warship “Chokai” (鳥海1885), the model of the large hammerhead crane (1916), the miniature of the electric locomotive used in the Omi Railroad, and the picture of the Tokyo station building (1911), and others are broadly displayed.IHI- Illust x03

Ishikawa shibusawa x01.JPG       Additionally, we can find many memorial photos there, like the portraits of founder Hirano Tomiji, Shibusawa Eiichi who  helped the development of early time of the IHI, Ishikawajima shipbuilding, a portrait of Doko Toshio who led the merger with Harima Heavy Industries and consolidated the development of the current IHI.

♣  Exhibition of “Short Story of Heavy industry”

Ishikawa Bridge x01.JPG    This is the exhibition zone highlighting the IHI’s Ishikawa crane x01.JPGtechnical achievement by showing the Ishikawa Ship x04.JPGmemorial pictures like Japan’s first iron bridge “Miyako-bashi” (都橋 Capita Bridge), powerful AC generator, domestic jet engine, tanker “Idemitsu Maru” (出光丸), ”Ajia-Maru” (亜細亜丸)and so on. All these  exhibitions looked  symbolizing the development of heavy industries in Japan.

♣  Exhibition of “Factory Diary”

Ishikawa factory x02.JPG       Among the exhibitions, the most attractive Ishikawa worker x01.JPGand characteristic one was this “Factory Diary” corner here for me. They are trying to describe the varety of scene on the daily workers’ lives and the appearance of factory operations at Ishikawajima and Tsukuda area where IHI’s factories were located, by the means of  big illustration screen, beside expressing the  daily movement of employees with a factory’s diorama model. Also, many audio videos Ishikawa factory x03.JPGare facilitated  in the exhibition hall in order to live up the figures of workers and local people who were with the factories in Ishikawajima and Tsukuda factory area in the high-growth industrial period of Japan.

Ishikawa worker x03.JPG Ishikawa worker x04 Ishikawa worker x02.JPG

 

♣  After the Archive visit

Ishikawa logo x02.JPG       Actually it was the time of visit of  IHI’s “i-Muse”, when I was advised to visit this “Ishikawajima Archive “. However,  in a sense, it has been looked very much attractive for me even more than IHI’s  i-Muse itself. It was quite unique that the exhibition was arranged under the consistent concept makings together with the clear introduction of the history and culture of Ishikawa and Tsukuda community where the factory operation has been going.

Back then, IHI was called Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries, and the major Ishikawa Outlook x04.JPGproduction base was located at this Ishikawajima or Tsukuda region, but in 1979, the Tsukuda factory was closed caused by the move of IHI’s operation site. Since then, this area has been incorporated into the Sumida River Waterfront Development Program by Tokyo government, and transformed into “River City 21” for the residential and office buildingIHI- outlook x06s space in row. It seems that it is representing a moving pattern of relocation of  production sites according to the transformation of the Japanese economy and society among the post-War evolvement, from the  mass production and scale priority growth pattern to the more environmental and energy saving style, and the movement of production sites from the centralizing manufacturing in the urban area to the locally spreading development along with the urbanization and diverse relocation. In this meaning, it looked a valuable archive implicating how local communities have been changing along with Japan’s industrial development and social transforming too.

(end)

Reference:

-「石川島資料館—石川島からIHIへ–」パンフレット
– 石川島資料館ホームページ: https://www.ihi.co.jp/shiryoukan/
–  IHIの沿革・歩みHP: http://www.ihi.co.jp/ihi/company/history/
– 石川島資料館 中央区まちかど展示館 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NV9uhZfHRW0

(了)

 

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Visit the “i-Muse” IHI’s Technology Museum

IHIものづくり館 i-Museを訪ねる―造船から航空機、宇宙機器への挑戦をみる

 IHI Shows the challenges of shipbuilding to space equipment business

What’s “i-Muse”

 IHI- outlook x02.JPG      IHI (formerly Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries) is one of the industrial enterprises representing Japan. The company is proud ofIHI- outlook x03.JPG150 year history since its establishment in 1876, and it holds a large share in the shipbuilding, heavy machinery, social and industrial infrastructure, and other areas in Japan now. This IHI established the technology museum, called “i-Muse “ at the IHI head office in Toyosu, Tokyo in 2006. The
purposed was to show the company history and its achievements of technology.

IHI- Illust x08.JPG      The various records and products are exhibited there from the original shipbuilding work to the current IHI’s engineering business. It seems to show, in a sense, the total feature of the development pattern of heavy industry in Japan and the current technology challenges as well.  So the museum is a valuable archive to convey the feature of heavy industry and engineering technology of Japan as a whole.
Recently, I visit this “i-Muse” in the head office at Toyosu. This is the visit record at that time.

 refer to  Home page of “i-Muse”: https://www.ihi.co.jp/i-muse/

  ♣ Exhibition corner of Company history of IHI

IHI- Hirano x01.JPG       The origin of IHI is “Ishikawajima shipbuilding” (石川島造船)made by the Edo Shogunate in 1853. But it became a yard controlled by Japan IHI- Old shipyard x01.JPGNavy after the Meiji era, and bought up later by the Tomiji Hirano(平野富二) in 1876 as a private company “Hirano Shipyard”(平野造船所). Based on this foundation, the company “Ishikawajima shipyard” (石川島造船所)was established by him in 1889, and after that, the company began rapidly advancing into various businesses, like power generation facilities, railroad locomotives, automobile and other filed. It is said that in this process the IHI has successfully consolidated the business base leading to the present status.IHI- History x01.JPG

Meanwhile, after the war in 1945, the company continued further expansion of its business as a technology company of heavy industry and engineering venture successfully. Then IHI has gradually grown to the company internationally known in the field of social infrastructure, aircraft engines, large ships, tankers and bridges, and it merged with Hiroshima’sHarima IHI- Illust x04.JPGShipbuilding” (播磨造船)in 1960. The name was changed to the “Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries” (石川島播磨重工業)at that time, and in 2007 the company name was simplified to the current IHI taking its initial.

Then the long development of busness, the IHI has moved its head office to Toyosu, and set up the museum of “i-Muse” commemorated its 150 year in its office. The purpose was to introduce what sort of technology the company has developed and how has it engaged in the field by the exhibition of the products manufactured by the company.

 ♣  The feature of “i-Muse” Museum

IHI- outlook x04.JPG       This “IHI Monozukuri” i-Muse ” was facilitated at the large lobby, and it designed to be seen from the outside covered by the glass specification. The inside space was divided into several corners. Each corner displayed the various records and products categorized by certain theme in chronological style, such as documents of IHI company history, engineering projects worked out, in addition to the model and real products of machinery, ship, building, bridge structures and so on.

 ♣  Company Historic Zone>

IHI- Illust x09.JPG       First of all, as entering the entrance hall, the real size “Jet engine J3”, which has IHI- Jet x01.JPGproduced by IHI in 1959, attracted our eyes. This indicates that IHI is now strongly committed to the technology development in the space and aviation field.

Also, as we proceed to the “Corporate History Corner”, the business advancement of IHI is exhibited by many photos, materials and detailed chronology. As I mentioned earlier, the exhibition extendedly displays IHI- Company chart x01.JPGthat the process of buying up the shipyard in the Ishikawajima area, and starting the ‘Ishikawajima Hirano Shipyard’, in addition to the subsequent IHI business expansion in chronological chart.

The history of ‘Harima Shipbuilding’ (founded in 1907) which merged with IHI in 1960 is also exhibited there too. Through these exhibits we could roughly observe the process that IHI has been evolved its business from the simple shipbuilding into theIHI- Company his x01.JPG various new fields, such as airplane and automobile as well as bridge and building construction sector.

Besides, the diorama model of “Hirano Shipyard” was elaborately installed at the center table there, so we could easily caught the image of the initial shipyard figure at that period of time.

  ♣  History Corner One: 1853-1945           

               — Construction of Tokyo Station, which led Japan to modernization

IHI- Illust x07.JPG        In this section, IHI’s products and facilities, from the Meiji era of 1853 to the 1945 of
IHI- Tokyo station x03.JPGShowa period
, was introduced by various media, like photos, records, models and so on. By this exhibition, we could overview the IHI’s company development process which started from the original shipbuilding works and expanded their business to the multidisciplinary sectors like heavy machinery, rail road, and bridge building, and others.

IHI- Bridge x02.JPG       There could find the memorial pictures of the Japan’s first steamship “Kaiun Maru”
(海運丸1877) and warship “Chokai” (鳥海1888), and photos the construction scene of s “Azumabashi” bridge (吾妻橋1887) of Sumidagawa river, and so on. With seeing these exhibits we could be acknowledged how the company IHI- ship x01.JPGhas advanced the technology and broaden business in the field of heavy mechanical industries.      In addition, a large construction model of the Tokyo Station building which was the epoch making engineering works in 1900s, was installed in the center part. It looked boasting the IHI’s important role in such big project by its architecture technology. Also in this corner a model of “Taiho-maru “ (大鵬丸built in 1906) was displayed as a symbolic shipbuilding project.

 

 ♣  History Corner Two: 1846-1968

       — Taking on the challenges of transporting petroleum with the world’s largest Tanker

IHI- Illust x02.JPG     The main theme of this corner was the role of IHI in the Japan’s post-war high economic growth period of Japan. During this time, how to secure industrial energy IHI- Tanker x01.JPGsources was a major issue in Japanese society.  The IHI has responded to the needs by constructing the “world class largest tanker construction” as its challenging projects with the accumulated shipbuilding technology since Meiji. The exhibition displayed a large scale model of the 200,000-ton tanker “Idemitsu Maru” (出光丸) which was built in 1966 to show its excellence of
technology. IHI- crane x07.JPG
There found the many exhibitions of photo and illustration panels on a yearly basis making it easy to understand the IHI’s technical development.

Also, the development model of a mobile large crane “Jib climbing crane” (1968) which is essential for the construction of high-rise buildings (for example, Kasumigaseki Bldg) was displayed there. This exhibit indicated the company has been engaging subsequently in the technology of the infrastructure project afterward.

♣ History Corner Three: 1869-1989

    — Technology development securing a -162 c high calorie energy source

IHI- Tank x01.JPG        The main theme of exhibition in this period was to show the overseas business expansion of IHI and strengthening technological power towards energy and environmental fields. Major exhibits were the construction of large storage
LNG gas tanks
(1969-) and the LPG plants (1984-) IHI- Rocket x01.JPG.
At the exhibition hall, a model of LNG storage tank  that stores an extremely low temperature of minus 162 degrees was proudly placed there with the elaborate commentary to the internal  structure. It might be suggesting that IHI have born a major role in this field. It also introduced that these type of LNG IHI- Bridge x03.JPGplants were deployed globally not only in Japan but also overseas.

In the aviation sector, the FJR 710 flight test model (1977), a model of liquid hydrogen H-I rocket (1986) can be observed. The Brazil’s shipboard pulp plant (1978) and Turkey “Golden Horn Bridge” (1974) and other global engineering projects were also introduced there.

♣  History Corner Four : 1990-1999

     —  The world’s longest suspension bridge crossing the Seto Island Sea

IHI- Bridge Illust x01.jpg    The feature of this corner’s exhibition is to convey the technical challenges of IHI to IHI- Bridge x01.JPGsocial infrastructure, development of state-of-the-art industrial equipment, and starting to the full-scale commitment to the aerospace field.
One of the symbolic projects featured in the exhibition was the installation of the “Akashi Kaikyo Bridge” (明石海峡大橋1994) project. The construction was a huge suspension bridge of 3.9 km in length across the strait including the technical challenge of overcoming the gushing wind pressure and extreme IHI- Nucler x01.JPGlength of the bridge span. It was very interesting to see there the experiment process of measuring the strength of suspension bridge and the cubic model of the suspension beam of the bridge.

In the corner there were also found the model of a new LNG carrier “Polar Eagle”, TEPCO Kashiwazaki nuclear power plant generator (柏崎原発1996), shield robot digging underground tunnel (1997) and others.    In the aerospace division, the development of “V 2500 engine” (1991), entry into “H – II rocket turbo pump” were introduced there too.

 

♣  History Corner Five : 2000 –

     — Developing the jet engines that fly the world’s skies

IHI- Illust x12.JPG       In this section, the development projects which are currently engaged by IHI were IHI- Jet x04.JPGintroduced. In particular, the exhibition is suggesting that they are focusing on the technology development of jet engines. The development process of IHI’s challenge since  the air turbo engine “FJR 710” (1971) were introduced there. And the exhibition showed the participation project concerning to the international joint development projects in the upfront area of aviation, such as recent aircraft technology, advanced engine development which is believed being led to the space development.

IHI- Jet x03     In the exhibition, “CF34 turbofan engine” developed in 2000 and the joint engine project of the Boeing 787 (2004-) were IHI- space x02.JPGdisplayed as examples. The participation to the project of refueling space station “Konotori” (こうのとり2009), the development of the new transportation system “Yurikamome” (ゆりかもめ 1996), etc. are also shown as the examples of the engineering activities in the social infrastructure.

♣  Special Corner for the Space Endeavor Equipment

– Participation to the “Hayabusa” project with “Collection Capsul” which has brought back sample materials of  asteroid

IHI- Illust x11.JPG       Among the exhibitions, the highlighted special exhibition would be the exhibition of IHI- Hayabusa x01.JPGthe real components of the “Collection capsule” of the asteroid discovery aircraft “Hayabusa” (はやぶさ) which successfully hit the Earth returned in 2003. The rocket capsules must have been suffered by ultra-IHI- Minerva x01.JPGhigh temperature when entering earth atmosphere from space at the time f return. It is said that IHI utilized its insulation technology which has cultivated in the LNG projects to respond this severe condition.      The exhibit that shows the contents of this capsule disassembled was profoundly dramatic. It thought us that the accumulation of technology is going to be utilized in various places in development.

♣  After the finishing the tour to IHI

IHI- Logo x01.JPG      Although it was only a one hour visit, I could learn a lot IHI- outlook x06.JPGabout the fact that the IHI has been advancing its business as a
technological pioneer in the various field for long time, like heavy industry machinery, aviation, engineering business, and so on following the long time axis. IHI believed to be a leading company now in the field of heavy industry in the abreast of the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. So through this exhibition, we’ll see how Japan’s heavy industries have been advanced their technology and get to the present day development.
IHI- engine x01.JPG     Besides, many “Japanese industrial heritage” products and equipment has included in the exhibition too. It was also interesting to find the historical fact that the IHI had just started its small ship-making business for the first time by purchasing government assets and actively absorbing Western technology in the Meiji era, and gradually expanded its development area and technology in responding the social industrial needs of the times, and becoming a big engineering company.
IHI- Illust x03.JPG  In this sense, this “Monodukuri i-Muse” is a historic mirror of industrial technologyIHI- outlook x05.JPG development and gracefully shows the figure of “corporate technology” archive.  Even though it describes only on the activity of a certain company, but it could fully suggest the engineering business development of Japan as a whole with rich in stories when glimpse Japanese industrial development.       In addition, it is an attractive exhibition style too that it adopts the display style with the categorized theme tackled by the company responding to the social requirement of the times of development stage.

iHI- Ishikawa Arch x01.JPG       In the meantime, there’s the “Ishikawajima Museum” that introduces IHI’s “Ishikawajima shipbuilding” history and the relationship with the local people in the present Tokyo-Tsukuda area. It is attractive institution to be familiar with the state of initial time of IHI factory and the impact to the regional community and people. It is believed to be worth visiting beside the IHI i-Muse ” itself.

 

(end)


Reference:

  • 「IHIものづくり館アイミューズ(I-Muse)」 案内パンフレット
  • i-Museホームページ:http://ihi.co.jp/imuse
  • IHI ホームページ(http://www.ihi.co.jp/index.html)
  • 「IHI Corporate Profile 2017」
  • 「技術の世界i-Muse」 (booklet)
  • 「石川島からIHI」(石川島資料館)
  • ビジュアル版 日本の技術100年 (3) 造船・鉄道

 

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Visit the “Kurofune” and the “Kaikoku” Museum in Shimoda, Izu

     Perry’s Black Ship and Shimoda Treaty which opened the door to Meiji restoration (Series visit to Izu and NRF part 3)

下田の黒船博物館と開国博物館を訪ねる―近代化への道を開いた黒船来航と下田開港―

 Memories of  Visit Shimoda

Himoda-Perryx01.JPG      While visiting Nirayama Iron Furnace (NRF), I visited the port city Shimoda on its way back to Tokyo. Shimoda is the place where Japan Shimoda- Kurofune Mx03.JPGsigned the treaty on the formal opening of port trade to Western countries such as Hakodate, Yokohama, and Kobe, and permitted Europeans to live inland  Japan for the first time. So the Shimoda became the first place having the direct cross-cultural contact with Japanese local community.

Shimoda- Kurofune Mx01.JPG    Then, in the city we could find many facilities showing this historical event and it’s Shimoda- Kaikoku x01.JPGinfluence, such as the “Kurobune Museum” in the premises of “Ryosenji” temple, where was the place to implement U.S. and Japan’s negotiations on the Shomoda Treaty, and the Shimoda “Kaikoku Museum” (opening port memorial Shimoda- harris x05.JPGmuseum). And at the coastal hillside of Shimoda town, located a historically spot like the “Gyokusenji” temple where the first Consul General  Harris had been staying.

These facilities have been showing interesting materials around the end of the Edo period, like Shimoda- Social x01.JPGJapanese lifestyle observed by American eyes, records of negotiating records, and pictures on the activities of American people among Japanese local communities, and so on. They looked well reflected of the social change of Japan when moving towards the Meiji. So, I could enjoy visiting these places on my tour to the South Ize after the visit NRF..

The following is my small record at that time of visit.

 

♣   Visit the “Kurobune Museum” in the “Ryosenji” temple

– Observation of social evolution from the isolation policy to the open of the country

Shimoda- Ryosenjix04.JPG        This “Kurobune Museum” was set up in the Shimoda- Perry xx1.JPGpremises of the “Ryosenji” temple where the diplomatic negotiations were carried out associated with the “Japan-U.S. Treaty of Peace”. This consultation was performed between Admiral Perry and the Shogun’s high ranking offers in 1854 on the theme how to implement the opening policy under the Edo’s long time isolation policy. The temple’s premises is currently designated as important Shimoda- Ryosenjix01.JPGShimoda- Ryosenjix02.JPGhistorical sites of Japan, and many travelers have been
visiting there. We could see there a large numbers of photographic pictures on the scene of negotiations between the US and Japan in the building.

In the adjacent to the temple area, the “Kurofune Museum” is located, The museum Shimoda- Kurofune Mx04.JPGis displaying abundant historic collections, like portraits of Admiral Perry, photographs and pictures of the US Shimoda- Social x02.JPGblack steam-ship Kurofune, depictions of Japanese society at the period, and the “Nishikies” (Japanese colored woodprint) which shows the living conditions of foreigners, and so on.

Especially, the portraits of Admiral Perry’s drawn by the Japanese artist was Shimoda- Kurofune Mx02.JPGinteresting which looked to mirror the imagination of
local people to the Westerners at the time of Edo. Besides these materials, a bunch of rare items such as armors and guns, daily living goods, musical instruments were also lining up there.

Among them, I was attracted to the miniature
paintings that are depicting the scene of diplomatic Shimoda- Kurofune Mx05.JPGconsultations of the Japan-US, the maps showing world
and Japan’s geographic conditions at the time, the appearance of Japanese people seen by foreigners.
In addition, “Black Ship Theater”, which interprets the historical background at that time, was also interesting. I felt it was a valuable museum to make us noticing the pre-modern history of Japan particularly on its diplomatic relation.

♣   “Kaikoku” Museum Visit

– A Private museum that tells Shimoda’s history and its opening up

Shimoda- Kaikoku x04.JPG        This “Kaikokku”museum is a precious historical museum Shimoda- Kaikoku x02.JPGwith showing the Shimoda port history at the end of Edo period, as well as the cross-cultural impact
brought by the local community’s first contact with the Western people at that time. It is also known as a seldom public museum managed by a volunteer citizen in the Shimoda city.

The museum holds abundant collection of pictures and documents, and other Shimoda- Kaikoku x03.JPGhistorical goods, such as the records when Admiral Perry had come visit to Shimoda, memorabilia of “Kurofune” (Black Ship), anecdotes on the diplomatic activities of Shimoda- illust x03.JPGAmerican first Consul General Harris and the interpreter Hesuken, the stories of Yoshida Shoin (a prominent opinion leader and educator of Rangaku in the Edo period) who had tried to stowaway off the Shimoda bay in breaking the rule of Edo government and finally died in the prison, and other precious materials. There found a Shimoda- Petjatin x04.JPGrecord of pioneer photographer Shimooka Renjo’s too who had first brought in the camera technology in Japan.

Among them, the most eye-catching exhibit would be the records of Russian navy general Putjatin’s visit to the Shimoda area, in which the records quoted that his ship had wrecked and towed to the Toda bay near Shimoda- Petjatin x05.JPG
Shimoda- Petjatin x06.JPGShimoda, and several anecdotes were talked there regarding the social relationship with local people who helped the Russian people to fix the wrecked ship, and it led the friendship agreement between Russia and Japan in 1855.

In the collection, the records have revealed the Edo government’s embarrassment Shimoda- illust x01
Shimoda- illust x02.JPGwith facing the frequent roaming and harboring of Western Shimoda- Social x03.JPGnaval vassals near the Japanese coasts. And the exhibitions were showing various inside stories associated with the diplomatic consultation in Shimoda. They also vividly display how big magnitude were brought to the local communities in the pictures when the people suddenly saw many foreigners appeared around them by the opening the port.

The museum stated that there were thousands of materials in the museum, but only around 1,000 of them are exhibited regularly, though the special theme-oriented exhibitions were held from time to time.

♣   “Harris Memorial Hall” at the “Gyokusenji” temple

   A memorial hall of Consul General Harris who played active roles in the US-Japan diplomacy at the end of the Edo era

Shimoda- harris x06.JPG The “Gyokusenji” temple is the residential place where the Consulate Shimoda- harris x02.JPGGeneral Harris had been staying for three years while negotiating on the
Shimoda US-Japan treaty. In the year 1927, the “Harris Memorial Stone” and the “Memorial Hall” were build there, but they have been ignored the meaning for many years. But the US President Carter has visited the memorial hall in 1979, and then began to gather attention of many people.

Shimoda- harris x04.JPGInside space is not so big, but it contains a lot of photographs, maps, documents related to Consul General Shimoda- illust x06.JPGHarris. So we can glimpse of the scene of Japan-US
diplomatic relations at the time in the Memorial Hall. It must be a valuable memorial hall in knowing the background of Japan’s Edo period and the dawn of Meiji era.

There had been built tombs of soldier of the Perry fleet. But Shimoda- harris x01.JPGanyway it was surprising that there were a “monument of the milk” and “memorial stone of slaughtering cattle”  in the premises. According the prescription of these monuments, they were was built because of the “Gyokusenji” Buddhist Shimoda- harris x07.JPGtemple that was the first place trading the cow’s milk products in the market, and slaughtering cattle for eating against Buddhist tradition in Japan. And it is said that the Shimoda region was the founding place of Morinaga Milk Industry. So we could feel well from the monuments that the absorption of Western culture and life style had been rapidly permeated in this port city, and the society itself began to change fast even in dietary life in the early Meiji Period.

♣    “Monument of Admiral Perry” at Shimoda harbor

Shimoda- perry x01.JPG     There is a small park on the west bank of Shimoda Port, where “Perry Visit  Monument” was built looking like inspecting over Simoda- perry x02.JPGthe whole port. The inscription of monument says that Perry ‘s fleet troops arrived in this area and negotiated the Shimoda Treaty. From this monument site, it is said Perry’s troops went up the river road, marched towards “Ryosenji” temple, and started the historical consultation regarding the Japan-US diplomatic relations. Currently, this road
is protected as a “Historic Street” and it becomes a Shimoda- perry xx02.JPGplace to attract many tourists reminding the dawn Shimoda- illust x04.JPGperiod of Japan shifting from Edo period and Meiji modernization period.

In this way, Shimoda became the first opening port in Japan, as a fully contacting place of Westerners and Japanese people. And people there received various multi-culture impacts. Then we might have to be appreciated Shimoda as a historical site showing peculiar phenomena of rapidly changing society at the end of Tokugawa period. I could feel of that in this time of visit Shimoda

♣   After visit the Izu history tour to NRF and related places

Egawa-gate x01  NRF- Illust x04      In order to learn about the historical background of the NRF which designated as a World Shimoda- Kaikoku x03Heritage Site, I visited the “Egawa Tei” of Egawa Hidetasu, and Shimoda where was the arrival place of the Perry fleet which actually urged the Edo government to start construction of the NRF.

Through these series of visit, I understood well the obsession of Japan which wanted to absorb Western contemporary technology in hurry due to the threat from Western Egawa- Odaiba x01
powers at the end of the Tokugawa period, and the necessity of proceeding political strategy, and also the social change Shimoda- illust x05.JPGbrought by the discard the isolation policy in the past. In addition, through this visit trip I was impressed that the movement toward modernization of society after the Meiji period had already started in the end of the Edo period, and rapidly accelerated by the accumulated experiences in the society as a whole.

Shimoda- perry xx03JPGShimoda- Perry xx1      Even in the steel making after Meiji, the engineers had burnished their technology through constructing
modern furnaces in the various places, and the shipbuilders in Toda port near the Shimoda, who had initiated the repairing work of wrecked Russian ship and built proxy ship of it, were actually contributing to the construction of large-scale Western ships afterward.
travel-illust-x04 I finished my trip with realizing again that these challenges and efforts later formed the roots of modernization of society and technology which started in the Meiji period.

(end)


Reference:

  • 「黒船ミュージアム」案内パンフレット
  • 同ホームページ http://www.mobskurofune.com/
  • 「幕末異文化交流下田絵巻―黒船―」(黒船ミュージアム)
  • 「開国殿 了仙寺」 案内パンフレット
  • 「下田開国博物館」パンフレット
  • 同ホームページ http://www.shimoda-museum.jp/
  • 「玉泉寺」パンフレット
  • 同ホームページ http://gyokusenji.web.fc2.com/

 

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Visit the “Egawa Tei ” in Nirayama, Izu

  ( Journey to Nirayama Iron Faunas part 2)  Visit the “Egawa Tei Residence” Archive, highlighting Egawa’s contribution to the defense policy in the Edo period and the construction of NRF Furnace

重要文化財「韮山・江川邸訪問」

♣  Position of “Egawa Tei” and Egawa clan

Egawa- illust x01.JPG       Just after visiting the Nirayama Reverberate Furnes (NRF), I decided toEgawa- house x05.JPG drop by at the former residence of Egawa Hidetatsu who had
contributed much to the construction of the NRF. The Egawa clan had belonged to the prominent Samurai class based in Izu region since the 15 century. In the Edo era,
the Egawa clan was assigned to “Daikan”, a bureaucrat of Tokugawa Shogunate, to govern the whole Izu area, Shizuoka for several generations. In this family line, Egawa Hidetatsu had taken special position Egawa- family crest x01.JPGto contribute for the Shogun policy regarding the Edo’s maritime defense, foreign policy, and educational activities around the end of the Tokugawa period.

This Egawa family’s former residence “Egawa Residence” Egawa- house x02.JPGbuilding, which had built in the 15 century, is well known to be  still remained as it is even after the 600 years or more. Egawa- illust x07.JPGSo the Residence was already nominated as an important  national treasury of Japan. Recently, this Residence complex  became to be owned by the NPO Institute of Egawa- house x04.JPG“Egawa Bunko“, and  publicly opened.  And nowit  exhibits valuable materials to trace the former Egawa family’s lives and Egawa clan’s history, especially the exhibition is showing that the political and social contribution of Egawa Hidetatsu and his life.

It is said that Hidetasu was well known to have played significant role in the Edo Egawa- Bunko x01.JPGperiod, such as opening of the “Ranagaku Juku” (Dutch Study), construction of a “Shinagaw Odaiba” (Defense fort), building of a refractory furnace NRF Egawa- illust x03.JPGat that time while the Western military threat was rising. All the materials relating his contribution and work are exhibited in the “Egawa Residence Archive “now. These collections seem to be quite important and valuable to see the pre-modern history of Japan.

The below description is the result which I saw the current state of the house, the major exhibits in the archive, and the history of Egawa itself. It also forms the appendix to the series of NRF observation and my World Industrial Heritage tour.

See Egawa Residence Home Page http://www.egawatei.com/

++++++++++++++++

♣  Overview of historic building of “Egawa Tei Archive”

Egawa- illust x02.JPG   The historic buildings which  still remained  now is a main house complex constructed in the 1600s, along with the main gate, the “Shoin Room” (study room), the “Butsuma” Egawa- warehouse x01.JPG(pray room of Buddha ), the warehouses, the outer guarding wall, and several buildings attached to the residence. They have executed the major restoration in 1958 and 1993, and after that they came to form the present condition.

It is said that these buildings are frequently used as the background theater scene of the Japanese Samuai TV
Egawa-gate x01drama, because these are well kept the old appearance of the samurai period.

Anyway, inside the house, we could find the entrance of castle Egawa- doma x01.JPGcalled “Masu Gata” (square ground space) place, and beside it, found that a main gate named “Yakui Mon” gate (gate of pharmacy) made in 1696 is standing .( Note: Egawa residence was also used as a medial office) . In the compound, there are several historic buildings standing in row, such as armor warehouse, library, well, stock house of food and daily Egawa- wooden pillar x01.JPGgoods in addition to the ruins of administrative building. They have also an old  historical gate “Uramon” (backside gate) which built in 1590.

We could observe the main house’s huge roof which is covered by thiEgawa-well x01.JPGck thatches, and be possible to see the whole house structure which the big wooden plates and pillars are
supporting the high ceiling too. It’s also significant that the Egawa- water wheel x01.JPGhouse building has a large un-floored space for the kitchen and utilities on the ground.     It would be surprising thing for us that such old buildings, which experienced several hundred years, have still remained as it is in the rather isolated country area far from major cities.

 ♣  Historical collection of “Egawa Residence Archive”

As I mentioned the Archive displays a number of exhibits on the history and originsEgawa- Treasure x01.JPG Egawa- Hidetatsu x01.JPGof the Egawa clan as well as Egawa Hidetasu’s major contribution to the Edo government in the Edo period.

For the examples, the Egawa family’s “Haori” costumes of the past, flags describing family crests, ogre tiles, ancient documents, maps, and others which had been using in the successive generation, these are systematically displayed. Regarding Hidetatsu Egawa- painter x01.JPGcollection, there found a lot of paintings and scientific pictures drawn by himself.  Because it is said he was a genius of cultural affairs and master of painting, beside Egawa- photo x01.JPGas his role of a Samurai technocrat. And as an influential Samurai clan’s tradition, the archive shows horse riding harness, Japanese sword, firearms, ammunition, crest, flags, and other historical goods Also, in the rare collection , we could find the goods like Ambro type photos,  the first time in Japan, taken by John Manjiro (first Japanese to learn in the U.S.) , and artillery cart brought in by the American Admiral Perry are displayed there.

Egawa- sword x01.JPG       Among the collections derived from Hidetatsu, there are the minuteness portrait
animals, self-portrait, and NRF Construction map, wooden model of Odaiba. And  also found also the letter documents with Sakuma Shozan Egawa- cannon x01.JPGand  Takashima Shuhan. They are the evidence he had a strong relations with the outstanding intellectual political and social leaders around the period of Edo period.
Egawa- Treasure x03.JPG    All these materials are available in the Archives, including important national treasuries. Then, by looking at these exhibitions, we could  recognize the social environment at the end of the Edo when people were experiencing the drastic political change and social revolution  heading  toward the modernization  age from federal social framework. And also we can see how the enlightened social leaders have behaved under the pressures from of the overseas, like seeing in the social activities of Egawa Hidetatsu.

 

♣  Role of  Hidetatsu as a political and social leader

Egawa- Treasure x02.JPG It seems that the name of Hidetasu was not so noticeably quoted in
the history book because the Edo Shogunate was forced to collapse by the leading anti-Tokugawa political powers of Meiji Restoration. NRF- Illust x04.JPG

However, the Egawa’s footprints are now beginning to be emerged concerning his contribution to the technology advancement and enlightened behavior as well as  his personal character as a techno-bureaucrat at the time.

Particularly, three activities have recognized as his great performance. Firstly the matter he had led the building of defending fort “Odaiba” off the Egawa- Odaiba x01.JPGShinagawa in the Edo bay, the second was the thing
to architect the NRF, and thirdly Hidetasu had delicately worked for restoring the wrecked Russian ship “Diana” and helped the building of a Western Egawa- deana x01.JPGstyle sailboat at Toda bay for the first time. Regarding “Diana”, it is said that the ship carpenters who engaged restoring work in it, have played the leading role to construct the Western type sailboats in the various parts afterward , and believed to set the foundation of ship building technology in Japan at the early period Meiji.

Egawa- bread x02.JPG   Egawa- bread x01.JPG  In addition, it is famed that Hidetatsu had baked bread for the first time in Japan (The monument of bread-baking is standing in the compound), and had performed the medical treatment by vaccinating people to prevent smallpox epidemics. He is also noticed that he had trained “Farmer Infantry” contingent to try to defend the foreign invasion from the sea at Egawa- Book x01.JPGthat time (This is said to be a kind of training model of Meiji Japan military infantry forming ) .  Egawa had also tried to disseminate Western gunnery and Western technical Egawa- soldier x01.JPGknowledge to the people through the “Rangaku Egawa Juku ”  too.

Among them, the construction of the NRF was a major work by Hidetatsu. However, it is really regretted that he died just before its completion caused by his extreme hard work burden. The subsequent work had been handed over to his son and successfully NRF- Egawa x03.JPGcompleted. As the result the achievements of Hidetatsu are still remembered by the local people and wider citizens as a person who behaved many things in ahead the time, and gave outstanding impact to the later society.

So in order to honor the accomplishments of this Hidetatsu, a Egawa- house x03.JPGbronze statue is built
on the grounds of the NRF. More of that, the descendants of the Egawa family has established the foundation “Egawa Bunko”, and they are maintaining huge relics and managing the NPO for creation of the historical database associate with the Egawa Residence, besides performing various events to promote his contribution.

(end)

Reference:

  • 「江川家の至宝」 橋本敬之 (長倉書店 2015)
  • 「江川家の至宝」伊豆新聞特集連載記事(No.1-60)
  • 江川邸―史跡 韮山役所跡― 案内パンフレット
  • 「江川邸案内」リーフレット (江川邸公開事務室)
  • 伊豆韮山江川家文書データベース (財団法人江川文庫)(http://base1.nijl.ac.jp/~archicol/egawa_ke_monjo.htm)
  • 静岡県韮山・江川英龍探訪 (http://tekcat.blog21.fc2.com/blog-entry-1687.html?sp)
  • 重要文化財「江川邸」ホームページ (http://www.egawatei.com/)

 

 

 

 

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Visit Nirayama Iron Furnaces as a World Heritage

Japanese first challenge of modern iron making♣

♣  For the beginning

NRF- Illust x01.JPG        Recently, I visited the Reverberatory Furnaces in Nirayama, Izu, Shizuoka area. This historic site is one of the Western style iron melting furnaces which NRF- Furnace x04.JPGhave built for producing iron cannon in the end of the Edo period. This type of furnaces was constructed in the many places such as Saga, Kagoshima, Yamaguchi for the strengthening naval capacity under the threat of foreign fleet at that time. But the remaining observable sites were only in Hagi, Yamaguchi and this Nirayama furnace only today among them.

NRF- Guide C illust x02.JPG     Particularly, Nirayama’s furnace is unique because it has shown the real figure of practically operated iron making process at the time of construction. For this reason, it was designated as the historic treasure of the country and registered as a Unesco’s “World Cultural Heritage” in 2015.

Meantime, the “Guidance Center” of the NRF- Illust x05.JPGNirayama Reverberatory Furnaces (NRF) was opened at the end of 2016. The facility is purpose to show up its historic site by exhibiting memorial goods and materials, information panels on the furnaces and many others. Now many visitors became visiting there to appreciate NRF now as a tourism target.

  See: Home page NRF:
http://www.city.izunokuni.shizuoka.jp/bunka_bunkazai/manabi/bunkazai/hansyaro/index.html

The furnaces is said to be constructed by the limited knowledge about Western iron NRF- Internal structure x02.JPGmaking system under the isolation policy of Edo Shogunate in 19c. So the work of Japanese engineers at that time had to work relying only on the Dutch engineering books. The challenges had been NRF- Cannon x02.JPGexceedingly severe, but after the laboratory work it led to attain the goal by genuinely Japanese engineers’ initiatives only even though accompanying many shortages in the operation. After the Meiji era, the reverberatory furnace technology itself had become an old one. But, the experience and knowledge which engineers cultivated in the construction has applied much in the subsequent advancement of the Japanese steel industry. These must have been a precious and seldom experience for Japanese in this meaning.

The following is an impression of the visits of the NRF and some additional info on it.

++++++++++++

 ♣  NRF as a historical monument

NRF is located Narutaki District of Izunokuni City, about a 20 minute walk from Izu NRF- Illust x04.JPGNagaoka Station. The site is about 3000 square meters in size, with two tower-like buildings about 16 meter’s height. As the NRF- Illust x03.JPGfoundation of the NRF the furnace’s combustion port and iron melting stand were installed. The furnaces are consisted of four twin melting units linking each other by L-shape. The interior parts were covered by heat-resisted brick arch, and it is said that the furnace was covered by the white plaster in the beginning. Today the exterior wall was hardened by the steel latticed frame for the protection of the building.

NRF- CG x04.JPG        At the high time of operation, it is said that the NRF had many workshops in compound, such as casting shop of gun barrel, drilling cabin of barrel with water wheel, blacksmith NRF- CG x05.JPGhuts, and coke piling warehouses beside the furnace facility itself. Then the entire site was believed to be something looking like a huge factory.

The most of the barrels produced there had been moved to the Odaiba (tiny fort land of harbor) off Shinagawa area in Edo bay in order to ward off the foreign naval fleets. This situation is well illustrated in the exhibits in the “Guidance Center.”

♣  Exhibitions of NRF

NRF- Illust x02.JPG       This “NRF Guidance Center” was set up to introduce the structure of furnace, its historical significance and technical background of the NRF just after receiving the designation of ” World Cultural Heritage”  So NRF- Guide Center look x02.JPGIt is quite effective to visit first this center for learning about NRF and before actually visit the furnace.

The center has a video hall and an exhibition room. In the former space, the large screen is showing the
NRF- material x03.JPGconstruction process of the NRF and the iron melting and casting scenes by CG pictures, and in the latter
exhibition room, the chronologies, photographs and illustrations, memorial goods leading construction of the NRF are displayed, besides many bricks, molten iron blocks used for the construction and so on.

CG Image is available by:
http://www.city.izunokuni.shizuoka.jp/hansyaro/manabi/bunkazai/hansyaro/cg.html

♣  What’s Reverberatory Furnace and its Technology

My initial interest was “what is all aboutNRF- Furnace x01.JPG“Reverberatory Furnace” (NR) and where it has come originally. The NRF- Internal structure x01.JPGGuidance Center has explained it in detail. According NRF- Furnace x02.JPGto the
explanation, the iron making using a NR method had originally developed in England in the 18th century and mainly used for the cannon manufacturing. And it is said that the technology was adopted in Europe in the 19th century as a quite common iron making method.
NRF- Book x01.JPG  In Japan, it was introduced through the Ran Kagaku (Dutch engineering books).  And under the military threats, such as visiting Admiral Perry’s fleets in the Edo bay in the isolation NRF- Perry x01.JPGpolicy, the Edo government was obsessed to explore the new method of building iron arms like cannons to avoid the serious foreign threat. The construction of furnace was made based on the text book of “Casting method of the Royal iron cannon NRF- Rangaku x01.JPGmanufacturing place” written by Hugenenin, a Dutch engineer. And Japanese engineers translated this book and applied it in the field with some Japanese modification.
In Japan, since the ancient times, people had been manufacturing iron by so called “Tatara J Sword 18 Tatara 01steel making.” This method was exclusively used for iron making for long time until the middle of the Edo period. However, this manufacturing technology was suitable only for small iron products such as swords and agricultural tools, but it couldn’t apply well to the large casting production like cannon.

In the meantime, the structure of this RF basically formed NRF- Furnace x05.JPGof the combustion chamber and the iron melting chamber in the separate way. So this production system generates, high temperature by combustion of fuels in the chamber, creates a rising thermal air by high chimney, reflects it on the inner wall, and could melt a large amount of iron lump subsequently. This is said to be the best technique for casting of iron cannons at that time.

But after that, this technology gradually became an old fashioned, and large blast NRF- Illust x10.JPGfurnace using coke, converter method, hearth furnace method were continuously invented, then the main iron-making NRF- Illust x07.JPGtechnology have been shifting to the new manufacturing systems. But in the end of the Tokugawa Edo period, this RF was believed to be the latest technology; so the Japanese engineers had to rely on this method.
For that reason, the acquisition of the technology of the latest Western furnace and the actual operation had to inevitably face exceeding difficulties at that time of engineering capacity. Additionally, it was necessary to drill a hole to the molten cast to make real gun barrels. It was a great technical challenge to make hole in the hard iron lump in the Edo period because a strong power source wasn’t available beside water power. The evidence of these struggles is well left in the ruins of the NRF there.

Anyway, with the exhibits and related documents, we could see how the RF has been NRF- Illust x11.JPGNRF- Saga x01.JPGconstructed in history. It was Saga’s Nabeshima clan that built the “RF” for the first time in Japan and succeed in casting iron. It is said that Nabeshima Naomasa, a lord of the Saga, intended to build a RF reflector in Tsukuji for building the sea defense forts in the late Edo period by mobilizing Rangaku (Dutch Study) engineers and started the cannon manufacturing project there. With the successful prospect of this project, the construction of the Satsuma clan’s “Shuseikan” project, the Choshu-Hagi, also began construction of the RF too, and the construction movements of similar furnace started in many places in Japan.

♣   The Construction of NRF and Egawa Hidetasu

NRF- Egawa x02Amid such circumstances, the Egawa Hidetatsu, who had many colleagues of Rangaku people, made technology proposal to the Shogunate on the defense policy of the Edo bay to build of “Odaiba” (small fort land) and NRF- Odaiba x01.JPGthe construction of the NRF, after the time of harboring arrival of the Perry
fleet, even it was somewhat delayed from the aggressive initiatives of the other southwestern Japan’s major clans.

       Egawa Hidetatsu, who was familiar with Takashima Shuhan who was an artillery advisor to Shogunate at that time, had referred to Rangaku book
NRF- Shimoda x02.JPGand dispatched the trusted subordinate Hatta Heisuke to Saga area where had been advancing the furnace operation. Hatta was believed to learn much about furnace technology in Saga, and returned to Nirayama to bring the results. Then Egawa first started building of the NRF by his initiatives based on his information after the Edo’s permissions.

Initially, he planned to construct it at the Shimoda area, which was close to the production of heat-resistant bricks, but the location was suddenly changed to the Izu Nirayama area, because a peculiar incident touching to the military confidentiality had occurred in the site. So it took five months to complete this first reactor there

However, there happened another tragedy to Hidetatsu, who was a leading figure in construction, died suddenly just before the completion. But the building project itself was NRF- Cannon x01.JPGhanded over to his son, and finally could success to build a small 18 pound iron cannon by this furnace after the painfully hard work. NRF- Guide C illust x01.JPGEven that, the quality of molten iron was said to be quite poor and experienced many failures in the process. Additionally,  the Ansei large earthquake struck the area in 1855, and the furnace was severely damaged.

Then, in the subsequent years, the seven times of melting works had been tried, but it NRF- Illust x09.JPGresulted in the end to complete only two units of iron cannons.       We could imagine how difficult it was to introduce new technology at that time with lack of comprehensive scientific knowledge on the modern iron-making. Many trial and error and technical modifications had been made in this manufacturing process, but the main cause was said to be due to the poor NRF- Egawa x03.JPGquality of material iron (sand iron pig), irregularity of melting process, skill of works, furnace architecture, and basically the short of experience.

However, technological challenges, ingenuity, trial application to the new methods, and other efforts in the process, all these endeavors of are evaluated as being embodied in this NRF’ site. When looking around throughout of Japan, the RF was tried to build in the around eleven locations at the late Edo period. Among them, it is the NRF only in the Izu region where the appearance of furnace completely remains as it was. So its historical value is quite high. Because of his Yahata- Furnas x01.JPGcontribution to the NRF, a statue of Egawa was built by the local people in the premises now.

Yahata- Noro x01.JPG       It is no doubt that the challenging spirit and experience of trial and error of iron
making have become the foundation of the Japanese steel making industry in the Meiji industrial modernization afterwards. Especially, we could admire the wisdom of the Japanese engineers that they tried to follow the new technology only upon the Dutch technical books, and made up real RF without direct guidance or contribution of Western technicians. This was strongly felt when observing the reflector in the field. It seems reasonable to be designated as “World Cultural Heritage”.

NRF- Egawa x06.JPG    (The Egawa’s old residence remains at the “Egawa memorial museum” in Nirayama. The museum holds a lot of records and memorials when he had lived, such as records of the time of NRF building and, traces of his activities as an engineer, a doctor, and architect. They were well kept until now. I’d like introduce this museum exhibition later on the other scripts.)

♣  My impression after the visit NRF

NRF- Illust x06.JPG       It was a great experience that we could observe the NRF site, and acknowledged about the background history of it and glimpsed the NRF- Egawa x01.JPGrecord of technical challenge at the end of the Edo period. After the defense function of Edo government was over, the NRF was transferred to the Ministry of Army of Meiji Japan (1873), but it was left being neglected for long time. But in 1908, the restoration of NRF movement began by the local people on the 50th anniversary of the fall of Egawa who had greatly contributed to the building of NRF.

And it was designated as a national historic site in 1922. However, the preservation crisis of NRF had occurred in 1930 by the Izu great Earthquake and the
NRF- Volunteer guide x01upper part of the NR had become collapsed. After the Pacific War, the demand to the restoration of NRF emerged again and strengthened further by the movement among the local people and government. With that initiative the major recovery project NRF- Fuji x01.JPGstarted in 1957 which was included the architectural works putting steel frame for reinforcement, clearing the premises, and so on. The current outlook of NRF was basically formed at this time.       Many volunteers are participating in the guide actively at the NRF site now for visitors.
That made us felt a sincere proud of local people and NRF- Sakura x02.JPGtheir hot enthusiasm to the historical monument of NRF. Local people sometimes boast that NRF visitors could look over two major World Heritage sites at once there. They say the one is NRF and another is Mt. Fuji. Certainly, as looking over from the hill side of the compound, Mt. Fuji, which is showing beautiful slope wearing snow at its top, can be clearly observed over the furnace tower surrounded by fertile greens.  I have ended my visit NRF while imaging the scenery NRF in the time of full bloom Sakura in the spring season with the good combination of Mt. Fuji over the hill.

(end)


Reference

  • 「韮山反射炉」構造と歴史 http://kazusa.jpn.org/b/archives/3605
  • 韮山反射炉案内パンフレット Japanese & English)
  • 「韮山反射炉の解説」 堀内永人 (文盛堂)
  • 「たたらから近代製鉄へ」岡田康吉編 (平凡社)
  • 「金属の文化史」 黑岩俊郎編 (アグネ)
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SEIKO Museum revisited

museum showing the history of the clock

Seiko Museum ticks clock history in the collection

♣  Outlook of Seiko Museum

Seiko2- Illust x02.JPG     I visited the Seiko Museum in Sumida ward, Tokyo last year. The seiko2- building x01.JPGMuseum is placed along the Sumida River about 10 minute walk from the Mukoijima Station of Tobu line. The famous “Mukojima Hyakaen Garden”, an authentic Japanese style garden, is located near the museum.

The “Seiko Museum” (formerly called Seiko Clock Seiko2- Exh hall x01.JPGMuseum) was set up in 1981 as a commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Seiko Company. And it has done the major refurbishment in April 2012 and transformed to the full-fledged pubic industrial museum at that time.Seiko2- old x01.JPG

The main aim of the establishment is said to acknowledge the development history of clock and watches in Japan as well as in the world. So the museum is displaying huge number of various Japanese precious clocks, old and new, worldwide historical clocks, world famous watches beside Seiko’s own watches, as well as Seiko’s company history.

The museum isn’t so big in size, but the collection was amazingly rich and attractive. The outline of the museum was the following.

♣  Scene of Exhibition Hall

Seiko2- Illust x07.JPG     The Museum has the three floors in the building. The first floor is allocated for the exhibition of historical clocks of around the world from ancient time to present day.Seiko2- time piece x01.JPG
The second floor is assign for the information space of Seiko’s company and its historical products. There many types of clocks and watches produced in Japan are also displayed.The third floor is allocated for the library and conference room.
Among these exhibitions, the most valuable and Seiko2- Wadokeix01.JPGattractive collections would be the Japanese historical clocks produced in Edo period since the 17 & 18 century which are known as “Wa Dokei” (Japanese traditional clock).

(Note: The Contents of major exhibits can be accessible by http://museum.seiko.co.jp/en/knowledge/history/index.html

♣   “Wa-Dokei” and Japanese Historical Clocks

When referring the Japanese clock history, the first mechanical clocks were brought Seiko2- Wadokeix02.JPGinto Japan in the 17th century from Portugal by the hands of missionaries. After that Japanese craftsmen has challenged to produce clocks by Seiko2- Wadokeix03.JPGshowing unique talent with specific mechanical style, and finally succeed to create the original clocks by themselves. It had a special time management system to adjust the time with several units following the sunrise to sunset time zone called “Seasonal Time System” by using special foliot balance (a mechanism of reciprocal motion) . The clock was named “Wa-Dokei”.  It could inform the seasonally corrected Seiko2- time piece x02.JPGtime to the people to manage their social daily life. The Wa-Dokei is, even in the present view, also appreciable with its artistic nature too, as well as the elaborate mechanical function. We can see the excellent technology level in the old days by viewing the collection of the Seiko museum.

However, the Japanese calendar time has switched to Western solar calendar in 1873 by the Meiji government. Then “Wa-dokei” became no longer used since that period. And the methods of production of the clocks Seiko2- Wadokeix04.JPGwere changed to the new Western technologies using coil springs and gears. So the most of the former Japanese clock production was Seiko2- seiko w x02.JPGabolished, but the technology and craftsmanship which was fostered in the “Wa-dokei”, could survived and inherited to the new generation of Japanese manufacturers.

Anyway, many clockmakers have entered into this new clock business with their own initiatives and tried to compete with the foreign makers. In this catching up process, the Japanese clock makers brushed up their skills, particularly precision mechanics nurtured in the traditional “Wa-dokei” technology. These challenging footsteps could clearly observed in the Seiko museum collections.

♣   Seiko’s Technology Development

Among these efforts of the clock makers in Japan, the track record of “Hattori Tokei Seiko2- hattori x01.JPGCompany” (currently become “Seiko”) was significant. The company has played a leading role in the clock making throughout the Seiko2- History x01.JPGdevelopment days.

The chronological chart at the second floor corner of the museum clearly shows how the Seiko’s clock and watch technology has been developed, as well as showing the development of Seiko2- seiko w x03.JPGJapanese clock and watch industries as a whole. In the museum collection, the evolvement of Seiko Company’s business is pictorially explained at the panel. We couldn’t resisted to impress much on the Kintaro Hattori’s vestiges as a Seiko’s founder and techno-entrepreneur by seeing his annals on the board panel.

                                                   (Note)  Refer to:  http://museum.seiko.co.jp/en/history/index.html

♣   World Precious Clock and Watch Collection

Seiko2- old x04.JPGThe display of historic and aesthetic “Clocks” produced by the world watch producers in the museum is also extremely wonderful Seiko2- old x05.JPGand superb. The artistic watches for French aristocracy in the 18 century, such as decoration watches, big bell clocks, and wall clocks are particularly valuable among them. In the collection, the museum will show us how variety of clocks and watches were existed in the world and how human has been enthusiastic to produce the time keeping tools.

Seiko2- old x06.JPG       Furthermore, we could also realize how the time counting things have been essential in our social life and culture in the history. We can see this fact in the collection that the tireless effort of
humankind has been done to develop the time keeping technology for the sake of fulfilling that desire to acknowledge accuracy of time. The Japanese clock collection in the museum is also interestinseiko2- J clock x01.JPGg. There found many types of pendulum clocks, wall clocks from old to mew, pocket watches with various size and artistic home-use clocks in the museum exhibition. These sophistication seems to reflect of the progressing Japanese mechanical technology since the Meiji period. Through the observing these collections we could trace the Japanese clock producing history along with their businesses and technologies by our own eyes.

♣  Epoch making appearance of Quarts watch 

In these watch and clock development history, the epoch making would Seiko2- seiko w x04.JPGbe the emerging of the “Quatz” system watch. This Seiko2- Illust x03.JPGsuccessful development would indicate that Japanese makers had already attained the high standard of clock and watch technology in the world.   This quartz technology brought us the ultra-accurate level of time management, and, as a result, the Japanese watches could be taking a landslide share in the world market in 1980s.

In the museum, the technical explanation Seiko2- mechanizm x01.JPGabout Quartz mechanism is explained in detail, such as how it has developed, what mechanism is installed there, in addition, how the time counting technology was built of the digital watch era, and how the affordable watches became so popular among the people in Japan than ever before.

Note: You can see the moving internal structure of the watch! Seiko Museum “VR simulator of watch“  by visiting:  http://app-review.jp/news/312100

The watches are now the personal accessory goods too. We could feel such transformation of time management technology in the exhibition of the museum well.

♣  Current Position of Japanese Watchmakers in the World

Seiko2- seiko w x05.JPG        Regarding to the watch technology and businesses, Japanese makers, including Seiko, have once dominated
the world market because of quartz, but, in recent years, the value of well-designed mechanical watch was going to revive, and the luxury watches made by the Clock Meister, such as Switzerland watchmakers, Seiko2- seiko w x06.JPGbecame enthusiastically appreciated among people and showing dominating position in the high end worldwide watch markets now.

Seiko2- Illust x01.JPG       Japanese watch makers are looked being positioned in the behind in the global market in this field, if compared with famous brand makers like Swaziland manufactures, even they still they are keeping certain shares in the middle end market.     However, Japanese makers like Seiko and likes, now have started to produce high-end Seiko2- seiko w x07.JPGbrand watch products, for example, the watches embodied superior functionality, light and strengthen, solar powered quartz watch mixed mechanical function, such as “Grand Seiko” and others, it might be a positive signs of revivals of Japanese watchmakers even in the high end market.

♣  My last Impression of Visit

Seiko2- Illust x05.JPG        As a matter of fact, for me the visit the Seiko Museum was a quite experience to enrich my knowledge about the history of time management tools in Japan as well as in the world, technology and mechanism of clock and watches, and the evolvement of watches and clock manufacturing Seiko2- seiko w x01.JPGbusinesses. Also these were probably related with the practical technology development of “Monodukuri” and industrialization process in Japan as a whole.       I have realized by visiting the Seiko Museum that the dynamism of business and technology which are evolving from one to another in the history, in addition to know how mechanical engineering of clock and watch technologies fostered in the process.
I felt that this time of visit was quite educational for me in this meaning.

(end)


Reference:

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Visit of Siebold Memorial Museum

Explore the roots of Japanese Western study “Rangaku” in the 19 century
シーボルト記念館の訪問

 ♣  Outlook of Siebold Museum

Siebold- Illust x05.JPG       The “Siebold Memorial Museum” is found  at the hilly site not far from siebold-museum-look-x01Dejima, Nagasaki. The name of Siebold is widely known as a doctor and
scientist who expanded the precious knowledge of Western medical and science to Japan while staying in “Dejima” in the Edo period.   He is also famous to introduce first about
Japanese real life to the European world, particularly on the Japanese fauna and flora, folklore, geography and the other subjects.Siebold- Museum look x04.JPG
The Siebold Memorial Museum was built in 1989 as a monumental archive to praise the contribution of Siebold by the
hand of Nagasaki City government. It’s really wonderful place to visit for touching his footprints and contribution to the Japanese society. After visiting Dejima, I visited this “Siebold Memorial Museum”. This is a small description on my visit.

Home Page of “Siebold Memorial Museum”
            http://www.city.nagasaki.lg.jp/kanko/820000/828000/p009217.html

 ♣  Rangaku School “ Narutaki Juku” and Siebold

Siebold- Narutaki x04.JPG      In the middle of Edo period, Siebold came to Nagasaki for working at the Dejima, and at that time, opened a Siebold- Narutaki x06.JPGRangaku school named “Narutaki Juku” (鳴滝塾) to teach medicine and other science subjects to Japanese students. It was said that this education facility Juku” had given strong impact to foster the essential thought for the modernization of Japan, particularly by the dissemination of medical knowledge and science development.
Siebold- Narutaki x02.JPG       This “Narutaki Juku” was named after the place Siebold had lived. This site became a memorial compound of park for Siebold now. There a statue of Siebold was standing surrounded by many hydrangea flowers. The “Siebold Memorial Museum” was built adjacent to this park with colonial style building which has modified the old house of Siebold in Leiden, the Netherlands.

 

 ♣  Significance of Siebold Memorial Museum

When entering the memorial hall, a large bronze statue of Siebold was placed in the Siebold- Museum look x03.JPGmiddle with a photo of his Japanese wife “Taki” and daughter “Ine”. These pictures indicate figures of his footprints during staying in Japan and memory of his family life in Japan.Siebold- family x03.JPG

At the exhibition corner in the Hall, we could notice a large map and chronological documents illustrating the geography image of Japan and world when Siebold came to Japan in the 19c. By these we could roughly grasp the Japanese political and geographical circumstances at the time.

Siebold- Surgery x03.JPGThe second exhibition was the introduction of Siebold’s life and activities at Nagasaki. Among them we could see the real goods and figures, paintings and the like which Siebold had left in Japan. These Siebold- Surgery x04.JPGare the precious evidence of his lifelong Siebold- Surgery x05.JPGresearch and the process of the medical education for Japanese scholars. For example, the portraits of Siebold, his letters, and medical equipment were there in addition to the eyeball models, surgical instruments, medicine baskets which Siebold had used for medical training to students.

Siebold- Edo x01.JPG    The third exhibition contained the record when Siebold had made in the trip to Edo in 1826. They were included the paintings, letters and documents indicating how he had communicated with Siebold- Map x02.JPGthe Edo’s intellectual persons regarding the Western knowledge. It was also found several exhibits showing the so-called “Siebold
Incident”
which said to violate the Shogunate’s law at
that time. This is a valuable material
Siebold- Illust x06.JPGrepresenting the severe tension of diplomatic relation with foreign countries at the time.
The map of Japan’s coastal map made by Ino Tadataka (伊能忠敬”Great Map of All Nippon Coastal Area”), a map of Sakhalin area, and others were also displayed there. These are indicating the Japanese challenges in order to explore the scientific understanding of Siebold- Book x01.JPGJapanese landscape.

Another major exhibition was on the Siebold’s scientific Siebold- Portrait x01.JPGanalysis and introduction of
the Japan to the world, such as “Japan”, “Japanese botanical magazine”, “Japanese animal magazine” (reprinted book) and so on..
All these exhibits were giving the vivid figures to our eyes of how Japanese real life situated at the time of Edo, as well as of What Siebold’s footprints and contribution were.

♣  Siebold and Dejima, and Rangaku school

Siebold- Rangaku x02.JPG   As describing earlier, the knowledge of science and technology, particularly medical science, was widely spread in Japan through the route of Dejima and Nagasaki, and it brought deep impact to the Siebold- Illust x02.JPGJapanese people in the form of “Rangaku” 蘭学 (Dutch Learning). This is manifested well in the exhibition of his memorial hall.    Rangaku has deeply penetrated in the society and spread new scientific knowledge to the Japanese intellectual circles in the Edo period. Then it fermented a fresh thought to lead social revolution in the end of Edo. In this mean, “Rangaku-Juku” (蘭学塾) school was the major source of these thoughts.

Siebold- Student x01.JPG       Among them, the “Ranaku-Juku” of Narutaki
in the Nagasaki which set up by Siebold, was the most influential “Juku” to disseminate the medical knowledge to the people, and nurtured the Western oriented “Rangaku medical doctor” in the Edo period. We could count prominent Siebold- Rangaku x01.JPGfigures there, like Rangaku Doctor Ko Ryosai (高了齋), Ninomiya Keisaku (二宮敬作), Mima Junzo (美馬順三),  and others.

The Rangaku master Ogata Koan’s (緒方洪庵) “Teki-Juku” (適塾) school in the Siebold-Fukuzawa x01.JPGOsaka was praised as the most influential Rangaku School which gathered many students throughout Japan who were played the important role in later Edo period. Among them, we could find people like, a military commander Omura Mashujiro (大村益次郎) who led the fall of Edo Shogunate and contributed much to form Meiji administration, and a great liberalist Fukuzawa Yukichi (福沢諭吉) who recognize as a leading figure to promote democratic thought in the Meiji time of Japan.

Siebold- Rangaku x03.JPG      In Edo area, “Edo Ranakujuku” school called “Tenshinro”(天真楼) which Siebold- Rangaku x04.JPGestablished by Sugita Genpaku (杉田玄白), who was pioneering Japanese
anatomy science, was also found in the important line of development of “Rangaku”. Sugita is famous to write the textbook “Rangaku Kotohajime” (蘭学事始), and first to translate the Dutch medical  book “Ontleedkundige Tafelen” into Japanese language titled “Kaitai Shinsho” (解体新書) describing the dejima-illust-x05way of human autopsy for the first time in Japan in 1826.
It is a common understanding that the most of “Rangaku Juku” at the time were more or less influenced by Siebold or benefited by the Dejima’s “Tuji” (出島通詞), Dutch interpreters.

Furthermore, we couldn’t forget that the role of the “Nagasaki Naval Training Siebold- Illust x09.JPGInstitute” (Nagasaki Kaigun Denshu Sho 長崎海軍伝習所) which was established with the cooperation of the Dejima commander in 1855. It was purposed to educate Siebold- Illust x10.JPGthe young Samurai people of Daimyo in Kyushu and Shogunate on the Western sailing technology. Later the trainees of this facility became the core human resources to advance Japanese society toward the new phase to the modernization. It included Katsu Kaishu (勝海舟), Enomoto Takeaki (榎本武揚), Godai Tomoatsu (五代友厚), and so on who became major figures initiated the political movement in the late Edo period.       They were also influenced from the scientific and technological knowledge based on “Rangaku” and leading personnel like Sieblod and Rangaku teachers.

♣  After visiting Siebold Memorial Museum

Siebold- Illust x11.JPG      I could recognize well in the visiting Dejima and Siebold Hall that they have played the significant role in the Japanese Siebold- Book x03.JPGmodernization history as a window to the Western world. As a matter of fact Japanese cultures and the Western new
knowledge have been blending there. These roles are becoming highly evaluated these days. And the movement of the restoration works has begun and tried to show the lively scene of Edo period in Dejima and Siebold Hall. It might be a great contribution to recall our own history by ourselves.

siebold-illust-x08     If refer to the Siebold Memorial Museum, I could see an great role of Siebold as a doctor and scientist, and his in-depth human relation with the Japanese intellectual circles. There a plenty of valuable historical materials, exhibits and paintings on “Rangaku” were displayed. And also I have seen a lot of evidences about the contribution of Siebold to
Siebold- family x05.JPGmodernization of Japan and the dissemination of scientific knowledge brought by him. I’ve learned more than anything about the Siebold’s personality which built deep friendship with Japanese leading people and his warm family relations which continued even after he had left Japan.
I felt that the visit of Dejima and visiting Siebold Memorial Museum this time has brought me really a good memory of intellectual trip. I hope many people enjoy the historic road linked to this Nagasaki, Dejima and appreciate the old scene of the premodern history of Japan there.

(Note) In the Museum it wasn’t allowed to take photo. Then the most of the pictures were substituted by other sources except some pictures taken by the author.

(end)


Reference:

  • 「シーボルトの見たニッポン」(シーボルト記念館)
  • 「長崎遊学9出島ヒストリア」長崎文献社
  • 長崎市「シーボルト常設展」ホームページ
  • “楠本イネ”(https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/楠本イネ
  • 「シーボルトと日本の近代科学」宮坂正英 (Civil Engineering Consultant July 2016)
  • 板沢武雄「シーボルト』吉川弘文館 1960年、
  • ”鳴滝塾“ https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/鳴滝塾
  • 「鳴滝塾と若者たち」my.coocan.jp/forin/bolt3.htm#1

 

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Visit Nagasaki-Dejima and Siebold

Visit Nagasaki-Dejima and Siebold Memorial Museum (part 1)
長崎出島とシーボルト記念館訪問

 ♣  Memories of Visit Nagasaki “Dejima”

 Dejima- logo x01.JPG  Recently I visited the Nagasaki-Dejima to be interest ed in the Japan’s foreign relation with Europe in the Edo period and its impact to Dejima- old x01.JPGJapanese modernization. It is known that Japan had closed diplomatic relationship with the Western countries over 200 years since 1600s with only exception of Nagasaki-Dejima.

However, the Western information and advanced science knowledge were unceasingly flowing  into Japan through the route of this small island. That has given a profound influence to the Dejima- Restoration x02.JPGmodernization of Japan afterwards. In recent years, this fact was widely recognized, and the restoration project of Dejima was started by the Nagasaki city government. .

When I visited the Dejima, the restoration project was looked like at the final stage. Then the Dejima Dejima- old x06.JPGwas already going as a tourist spot to indicate the way of interaction of European countries and former Japan. So there it has become appearing the original figures of foreign trade and culture of Japan before the modern era.

Dejima- siebold x01.JPG     In addition, the “Memorial Hall of Siebold” located nearby is exhibiting many memorial goods and vestiges which Dr. Siebold had given to the Japanese leading figures during staying in Dejima.

Article below is the current state of Dejima and my impression of visit.

As for the Dejima, the homepages are provide by bilingual way, so the further details are available by the following address:

¶ Home Page “Dejima”  http://nagasakidejima.jp/
¶ Home Page of Restration “Dejima” http://www.city.nagasaki.lg.jp/dejima/en/index.html

 

 ♣  What’s Dejima ? – A historic theater of old Japanese foreign relation

The “Dejima” is a special island zone that was built by Edo government to give special dejima-old-x02license to the Netherland engaging trade with Japan.  It looked like something similar to Dejima- illust x02.JPGthe ‘Special Economic Zone’ if we say in the present term. In the beginning, the Netherlands had set the business outlet in Hirado, Nagasaki. However, they were forced to transfer to ‘Dejima’ of Nagasaki in 1641 and designated to run their trade under the strict boarder control and severe surveillance..
On the other hand, this Dejima was a base of the “Dutch East India Company” that had been trading throughout Asia at the time.Dejima- old x03.JPG

However, what was importance of “Dejima” beyond the trade is that Western science and technology, especially medical science, has spread in Japan by the so called “Rangaku” (Dutch studies) learning. The Dejima- Rangaku x01.JPGNetherland doctors staying at “Dejima” have brought various medical knowledge to young Japanese, and disseminated them to the all over the country. In addition, many Western books were imported through “Dejima”, and Dejima- illust x06.JPGthe new knowledge of Europe was also absorbed widely in Japan by “Rangaku” scholars who learned from these books.

But we shouldn’t forget that many “Tsuji” (Dutch interpreter) members of “Dejima” Dejima- Rangaku x06.JPGhave played an important role in this dissemination process. This Dejima “Tsuji” was not only interpreters, but also functioned as catalysts to bring in the fresh knowledge among Japanese “Rangaku” scholars.

Then, the Dejima was uninterruptedly giving huge precious information and knowledge to Japan as the “A window to the Western world” for more than 200 years until Japan officially opened the country in 1859. Furthermore, the Dejima had created  the “learning” and Dejima- Rangaku x02.JPG“exchange” place to advance the modernization of Japan in Dejima- illust x03.JPGterms of human resources too. Particularly the intellectual scholars and political leaders who learned “Rngaku” emanated from Dejima have later become driving forces to widen the knowledge of Western medicines, astronomical geography, military technology, and to lead the social revolution in the Meiji Restoration.

In this sense, the historical position of the Dejima is quite outstanding..

 ♣  Restoration Movement of Dejima       dejima-logo-x02

dejima-restoration-x03 With the appreciation of historical meaning of Nagasaki and Dejima, the restoration  movement started after the Word War Dejima- Restoration x04.JPGII. Particularly after the request coming from the Netherlands, the restoration project of Dejima was masterminded in the 1950s. However, as the original form of Dejima had already disappeared at that time caused by the urbanization and landfill
works of Nagasaki city, and the movement faced many difficulties to proceed to the real restoration.

Dejima- Restoration x01.JPG   The movement have started in 1952 first to seek the original concept of restoration, and then gradually proceeded to realization of reappearance of the former style of Dejima after the thorough investigation.

Firstly the restoration was pursued the restoration of basic Dejima- Restoration x05.JPGbuildings and houses and rebirth of landscape of Dejima as the short term target. And in the long term, it planned to construct complete Dejima by Dejima- illust x04.JPGfull emulation of historical appearance. And the major facilities were restored in the first stage construction by 2006 and could make emerging rough style of Dejima. Then the Dejima was opened to the public as the historical heritage site on that day. When I visited in 2016, the restoration project was advancing to the final stage and becoming visible of the original figures of old Dejima.

 ♣  Dejima as a historic theater

Let’s see the appearance of this restored “Dejima”.
Dejima- W gate x03.JPG  Firstly the “Water Gate” was observed when we entered the Dejima compound. This gate was praised as a symbolic monument describing the history of Dejima. It showed how
Dejima- loading house x01.JPGthe trading goods were transported into this enclosed area and the way of in-and- out of foreign sailors to the area. And on the left side the unloading hut was found along the water way. It looked remind us the scene of Dejima’s practical trade activity.

Dejima- Capitan x06.JPG       A comparatively big building was positioned near there. It was a living site of the “Capitan” (Dutch Trade Director) house. Dejima- Capitan x02.JPGCurrently, many memorial goods were exhibited there to emulate the living circumstance of them at that time. And the ornaments were beautifully decorated in its residential hall with gorgeous banquet table which was provided for the honored guests in the Edo period.
dejima-old-x04Dejima- Capitan x07.JPG

And there was a small building next to the Capitan house. That was allocated for business office for Japanese commercial officers called “Dejima Otona” who control the Dejima- loading house x02.JPGDejima trade. Currently we could see many exhibits illustrating their work in this this building. So we could easily trace the trading activities of Japanese officials in Dejima there.Dejima- Bettle x02.JPG

Next building was the commercial hall known as “Bettle”
room for the Dutch-side’s executives. It was now used as a museum shop and the on-spot exhibition.
Dejima- warehouse x04.JPG      On the left side across the central road several warehouses called “Kura” were lined up. Among them, the first ” Kura” with white plaster wall was believed to store a valuable imported items like sugar, deer Dejima- trade museum x02.JPGleather and others. In the second “Kura” was said to stock dyes and their materials. This second “Kura” is now used as an exhibition room which is introducing unique trade patterns at that time titled the “Exchange of trade and culture” of Dejima.

In addition, near the “Kura” warehouses, there was an office style building where the Dutch trade secretary Dejima- Rangaku x05.JPGwas working. It is called “Rangaku-Kan”(Dutch Studies House)now which shows how “Rangaku” was disseminated in Japan, and how it has given profound impact to the modernization of Japanese society. There, we could observe a number of instruments and machineries used for geographic survey, navigation techniques, medicine and other sciences at the time

Going further backside we could see a stone warehouse. This was a stone-made warehouse built in 1865 and now it is called “Koko-Kan” Dejima- illust x05.JPGDejima- stone ware x02.JPG(Archaeological Museum). In this building, video movies displayed the function of “Dutch Language Interpreter” (Tsuji) “ in Dejima. As mentioned earlier, they were famous for playing important roles to convey the Western science and technology to Japanese.

Besides, in the Dejima compound, there were some monumental Dejima- club x01.JPG
Dejima-Seminary x01.JPGbuildings, such as the “Nagasaki Oversea Social Club” which set up as a socialization place between foreign residents in Nagasaki and Japanese in Meiji era, the Japan’s oldest “Protestant Theological Seminary” built in 1878, and others. There also found a botanical garden that Dr. Siebold had built in the park with seasonal colorful flowers in Dejima.Dejima- mini x01.JPG

Also, near the east side exit, the 1/15 outdoor model “Mini Dejima” was made for showing the exactly emulated figure of the old Dejima. We could imagine the whole pictures of Dejima well by this miniature model.

 

 

♣  Remark before end

dejima-logo-x02Thus, in looking around the whole area of Dejima, we felt that were invited to the historic theater world which mesmerized us to bring back to the scene of 200 years ago. So in this theater, we would dejima-restoration-x02acknowledge how economic, trade and cultural relationships of Japan and Netherlands have been formed based in Dejima, and remind us how the modern Japanese society has transformed by the advanced Western knowledge which brought in through this Dejima and “Rangaku” schools originated Nagasaki.
I would pray that the restoration project will progress well further and hope the “Dejima” will be recognized as a more attractive historical monument in future.

(part 1 end)

(Next script : Visit Siebold memorial hall and  “Rangaku”


Reference:

 

 

 

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Visit the Miike Coal Mines site (2) “Coal Museum”

Historical sites of Miike Coal Mines (part 2)
– Visit the “Omuta Coal Industrial Museum”

 (This section is continued section of the Part (1) Miike Coal Mines)

While visiting the historic sites of the Miike Coal Mines, I’ve visited the Omuta Coal
miike-museum-x02Industrial Museum
. This museum used as one of the guiding facility for the visitors to the historical heritages of Miike coal mines in the northern miike-museum-x01Kyushu, since they were  registered as a world cultural heritage in July 2015,

The museum is comprehensively exhibiting the historic materials related to the advancement of coal industries, particularly associated with the Miike coal mines. It seemed the museum was established to utilize this facility as a core promotion spot for the Miike- Museum x03.JPGtourism industries around the Omuta area, as well as to remind people about the social background and technology challenges of the coal industry around the area.

In the museum, we can see a lot of learning materials which are displayed in the hall regarding the coal mining measures, products, and the developed technology by  historical chart, dioramas and pictures, remodeling scenes, real working tools and equipment.
The contents and visit report  were as follows.

大牟田の近代化産業遺産ホームページ https://www.miikecoalmines.jp/outline.html

♣  Exhibition Corner of Energy and Coal

Miike-Coal products x02.JPGIn this corner, the historical role of coal products was shown with the brief explanation about how coal has been utilized for human life, besides describing about Miike- Illust x02.JPG
development process of Miike mines. We could observe the exact structure of the coal bed, the real mass of coal products which dug out from the mines, and applications products made of coal, and others. They had also panels, photographs, three-dimensional models and the like that animate the real scene of early coal mining stage.
Real equipment, such as steam locomotives, gas lamps and various coal stoves, were also observable in this corner which miike-locomotive-x01miie-coal-block-x01indicates how coal has been utilized as an energy source since ancient time. The variety ways of coal application in industries were introduced in the relevant commentary, for example, the refining process and chemical products which were made from the coal, and the cokes for an iron making.
I felt it is a really “science museum” showing the role of coal products as industrial materials and energy source from early time to the present years.

<炭鉱技術の歴史>のコーナー

♣  The Corner of Technology History of Coal Mines 

Miike- Illust x07.JPG       Here, the transformation of coal mining technology was illustrated from the ancient
time to the modern period in the exhibition panel. As a matter of fact, mining work had Miike- Museum x08.JPGbeen really difficult and severe. The main works were done by simple tools under the poor working conditions at least by the 1900s in Japan, and sometimes, the massive prison labor forces were mobilized to work there. However, as the times passed, the coal Miike- Museum x09.JPGmining technology was gradually modernized, and shifted to the working style of mechanization using steam and electricity equipment. This history process was being told using mock models and board commentary panels in this section.

When looking at the early time of the Miike coal mines, the water drainage in the coal pits was an crucial, so various measures and Miike- Museum x06.JPGtechnology were used to solve the problem. At this corner we can see lots of evidences of the technological evolution regarding them.

There are also showing plenty of exhibits of equipment and safety gears for coal mine workers from the early period to the recent time. These goods and tools could invoke our imagination about the scene of the inside coal pits and working conditions there.

♣  The corner of Omuta City and its relation with Coal Mines

This corner was showing the relationship between the Omuta’s social and economic Miike- Museum x11.JPGsituation and the development of coal mines which had been moved in parallel with the development of the Miike coal mines as a “coal mine’s town”. A number of pictures and photos were exhibited concerning the evolution of Omuta town and surrounding mining sites, such miike-manda-x01as the changing landscapes of Omuta region since the launching Miike coal mines. It is also showing the major technology adopted in the Miike coal mines, the railroad network and the construction of Miike port by which Omuta became the axis of coal production and loading base. The development process of the coal chemical manufacturing complex in Omuta area was Miike- Railway x07.JPGalso displayed.

By looking over these matters, it seemed revealed how greatly the social and economic situation of Omuta region has been affected. Therefore, in the midst of business declining of the coal industry, it looked crucial but very difficult how the Omuta could revitalize local community without coal industries in the future.

 

♣  “Dynamic tunnel” with experience of living mining site

All exhibitions show the full of charm, but “Dynamic Tunnel”, which provides visitors an Miike- Museum x13.JPGopportunity to directly look at the actual coal mining sites, seemed to be the most attractive ones than any other exhibits. This was a “mock” site of the practical coal mines which have been operated at the Miike coal mine until recent days.

When a visitor stands on the entrance corner, the door is open and led him to a pseudo descending elevator. Then as the door reopens again, he is already in the deep tunnel of 400 meters down in the mining pit. Miike- Dynamic tunnel x04.JPG

While looking around in the tunnel, the wall bet of the coal layers loomed in the dark, and suddenly appears the coal gathering site where the dummy mineworkers are digging, sorting the coal stones, and carrying out them by small
railways in the tunnel. As stepping in further inside, several modern mining machines can be found, such as Continia, Minor, and Hobel for mechanically and automatically digging and sorting coal mines.In addition, there is a road header to

Miike- Dynamic tunnel x03.JPGMiike- Dynamic tunnel x05.JPGdrill the tunnel, a modern self-running machine and a drum cutter in the mining tunnel. They are rotating in high speed with thunder like sound. It is a really magnificent scene. I haven’t seen such mining sites before, so it was a quite impressive scene for me.

♣  Impression of visiting Miike Coal MInes

Miike- Illust x09.JPG       What I have impressed in the visit the Miike Mines was, first of all, how intense of the rise and fall of the coal industry in Japan, particularly around the Miike coal mines and the fate of Omuta Miike- Museum x16.JPGregion. In fact, along with steel and shipbuilding industry, the coal
mining industries in the Kyushu region had played the central role in the early period of industrial modernization of Japan.

Miike- Museum x14.JPGBut it has been rapidly falling down the position in the Showa era. It was particular impressive phenomena because these things happened after the glorious development years of the Meiji and Taisho period. It has been a Miike- Illust x11.JPGreally drastic change in terms of economic and industrial process, and it’s given a fundamental impact to the local economies like Omuta and its adjacent areas. So the remains of Miike mines seem to be illustrating a long story of coal mining development and indicating how coal industry has evolved technologically and socially in this process. This could be convinced by seeing the former mining sites and visiting the Coal Science Museum in Omuta. .

Miike- Museum x18.JPG      The second impression of me was that many local volunteers were participating in the guiding activities to cherish the valuable historical heritage around the area, especially after the Miike coal mines have been registered as “World Heritage”. They were enthusiastically guiding visitors by building a hut at the site of the remains.Miike- Museum x17.JPG

In my visit to Miyanohara pit, a former mine worker has kindly guided me to the mine site, and explained the role of Miike mining and talked its history while mixing his own personal experience as a mining worker. Currently Omuta City has been energetically advancing the promotion projects of sightseeing using mining historical sites, along with promoting chemical factories and inviting pubic institutions.
miike-museum-x02    The construction of the “Coal Industry Science Museum” would be one of the social institutions following in this line. I wish these efforts will bring some fruits in the future. This has been my small hope after the visiting the historical sites of Miike mines.

(end)

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Reference

  1. 「三池炭鉱の歴史と技術」(大牟田市石炭産業科学館ガイドブック)2014
  2. 「世界文化遺産―三池炭鉱」ワークプレス刊 2016
  3. 大牟田の近代化産業遺産ホームページ https://www.miikecoalmines.jp/outline.html
  4. 宮原坑跡 大牟田の近代化産業遺産ホームページ https://www.miikecoalmines.jp/miyanohara.html
  5. 宮原抗跡 http://omuta-arao.net/history/tanko/miyahara.html
  6. 旧三池炭鉱専用鉄道敷 https://www.miikecoalmines.jp/rale.html
  7. 三池港 https://www.miike-coalmines.jp/port.html
  8. 大牟田のさまざまな近代化遺産 https://www.miikecoalmines.jp/others.html
  9. 三池炭鉱 万田坑 | 九州の世界遺産 http://www.welcomekyushu.jp/world_heritage/spots/detail/9
  10. 三井三池炭鉱-Wikipedia

 

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Visit the former Coal Mines of Mitsui Miike (part 1)

Historical sites of  Miike Coal Mines (1)
— The rise and fall of coal mining industry around Omuta, Kyushu

Miike- Illust y01.jpg    The “Miike Coal Mine” was established around1899 in Omuta, northern Kyushu area. This mining site had equipped Miike- Miyanohara x01.JPGwith modern facilities being unusual at that time, and yielded a massive chunk of coal in order to respond to the huge demand generated by the rapid industrial growth in the middle of Meiji era (1900s). And this mining project is renowned for the contribution a lot to build the foundation of industrial success in the early time of Japan.
With this historical value, the former Miike Coal mines sites miike-illust-y02were designated as one of the “World Industrial Heritage” in 2015 by Unesco.
I’ve recently had a chance to visit these Miike coal mines while traveling in Kyushu, such as Miyanohara coal pit, Miike port, railroad track of Miike mines, as well as the “Coal Industry Science Museum in Omuta”.
This is a small record at that time.

 Access to the Coal Mines sites

 ♣  Outline of Mitsui Miike Coal Mines

Miike- Illust x06.JPG       The coal industry of Japan was positioned as one of the most important basic industrial fields for long time from Meiji era to Taisho period (1900s to 1920s), and even just after the War period (1945–).  Miike- history x01.jpgHowever, since 1950s on time, the coal industry began to decline by energy conversion movement from coal to oil and the rapid globalization of the economy. And like as the area of Hokkaido Yubari and other coal mines sites, many coal mines in Kyushu were closed one after another, and nowadays they were down to the hard circumstances, in which it left only the ruined buildings of coal mines. The Miike coal mines in Omuta followed this trail too. “Hashima”, known as Miie- Scale model Coal mines x01.JPGa tourist destination as a “Warship Island”, was also the mining site under the same siuation. The economy of Omuta area, where Miike mine was located, has lost its vital strength, and the even population was declined since the closing of the coal mines in the 1990s..

With visiting the mining sites, I have noticed again of the dynamic but fluctuated fortunes of the coal mining industries, such as the Miike mines, which have shown the initial challenges of business and technology and its critical contribution to the industrial development in the Meiji period, as well as the long process losing vitality of coal industries in history.

The following is the visit impression on the Miike coal mine sites at the time.

 ♣  Story of  Miike Coal Mines in the Historical Perspective

Miike- Illust x05.JPG  A lump of coal materials were begun to use as a fuel for salt production in the Edo era Miike- history x02.jpgfor the first time, but the full-scale coal mine development was started only after the Meiji government had launched the vigorous promotion of modern manufacturing industries around 1870s. And major development of coal mines was initially handled by the government in the Kyushu area under the strong fostering policy of the industry development at the time.

Miike- Dan x01.JPG      In the midst, the Mitsui Business group bought up the government owned Miike coal mine in 1889, and started its own coal mine development as a private project. After that, the Miike mine achieved Miike- Old mining scene x01.JPGsignificant growth under the management of modern large-scale coal mines. It is said that this success was owed much to the outstanding leadership of Takuma Dan, who mastered the mining science in the US, and joined as a manager of the infant Mitsui Miike coal mine company. Then Mr. Dan was called the founding father of Miike Coal mines as an engineer and business innovator, and he was also appreciated as a figure greatly contributed to the whole industrial development of Japan.Miike- Model pit x02.JPG

In particular, Dan has gained great reputation as a man who firstly introduce modern technology in the mining, such as modern pumps for drainage, construction of new railroads for loading coal in large scale, and he has even built large Miike Port where a large ship can be berthed, as well as introduced the integrated coal mining management system. So the foundation of Miike coal mine had been consolidated by this Miike- diorama mines x01.JPGway with his contribution. In addition, in the surrounding area, many coal chemical factories were established around 1900s, which were producing coal, coke, fertilizer, dye and other chemical products.

Then the coal industries could be flourished through out of the period of 1920s and 30s. Even after the War of 1945, the coal industry has played a crucial role in economic recovery from the total damage of Japan’s industry.

Miike- Illust x04.JPG       However, it has been gradually lose competitive power because of radical energy shiftMiike- History x03.jpg from coal to oil being progressed around 1960s. In addition, there occurred large-scale coal mine accidents, labor disputes, and other unfortunate incidents. And the mining sites had been experienced great setback even under the big government supporting policies. The coal mines’ sides have also made their own efforts to improve productivity, mechanization, and technology measures for safety, but the coal production was gradually declined.

The Miike coal mines has followed the same lines and   the Mitsui coal mines were Miike- Miyanohara x05.JPGfinally closed in 1997 and their historical missions were over.

However, currently the new movements of using these historic mining sites for tourism and cultural promotion have been moving. In particular, since the Miike coal mines were designated as “World Heritage” in 2015, the movement has strengthened in the area..

 ♣   Visiting Miyanohara Coal Mine Pit

The ruins of Miyanohara coal mine is quietly standing on the hilly side of Omuta city Miike- Miyanohara x01.JPGlikely indicating the long historical development of coal industries. Back in the Meiji era, the coal demand was sharply increased, because the government had been strengthening the strong Miike- Miyanohara x03.JPGindustrial base and required the huge energy sources like coals. Then, it was necessary to run the coal mining in larger scale and the modernized way from the deeper coal shafts.  In order to respond this requirement, Miike’s Miyanohara coal pit was set up by Mitsui business group. However, it was necessary to properly handle of the ground water, but this Miike- Miyanohara x04.JPGoperation was quite difficult because the volume of yielding ground water was too huge in the deep pit

In this situation, Mr. Takuma Dan, who became the president of the Miike coal mine, has introduced the world’s largest British water pump to prevent this spring water, and made possible to produce massive coals from the Miyanohara Miike- Miyanohara x02.JPGmines as at first experiment in Japan. It is said that these innovative management and technological challenges have led the success of Mitsui Miike Coal mines by consolidating the business foundation. Currently, several facilities have remained as a historical monument, such as the oldest pumping pump steel turret built in 1901, several buildings and traced pump huts attached to the Miyanohara mines.

These historic sites are accessible now and the volunteer staffs are doing a guide for
the visitors. Then I visited the sites following the guide too. I was impressed in the Miike- Hisotry x06.JPGtechnical challenge which exerted in the initial period of development of coal mines. But on the other hand, I also recognize the fact that a number of prisoners were sent to the mining pits from the prison called “Miike Shuji Miike- prison x01.JPGKan” and made them work under the severe condition in the
Meiji period. This fact was confirmed in the small panel board at the Miyanohara pit.
I thought these remains were showingd us the harsh reality which occurred in parallel of the glorious industrial development in the Meiji Industrialization.

  ♣  Visiting Manda Coal Mines site

I couldn’t visit this Manda Coal mine, which located in Arao city near the Omuta city, Miike-Manda x01.JPGthis time. This mine was built in 1902 after the opening of the Miyanohara coal mines. It is said that it has boasted the largest scale of coal production among many other coal mines in Kyushu. The coal mine site has been registered as one of the World Heritage too. Currently, the second vertical shaft “Yagura”, the hoisting machine rooms, warehouse and pump room, safety lighthouse and bathroom, management office, some religious facility are preserved as memorial sites.

This Manda mine was one of the largest facilities in the Meiji and Taisho periods among other existing Miike coal mines, and coal production has been continued until 1951.

 ♣ Visiting the ruins of Miike Mines Railway

The railway line of Miike coal mine initially began by using the horse-drawn cart in

Miike- Rail x02.JPG1878 around Miike area. And around 1905 the railway reinforced the loading power by adopting the steam locomotives, and transported coals from the Miyanohara
and Manda mine to the Mike port to follow the increase of production. Subsequently, the railway have made the power-up renovation of the key equipment, such as Miike- Railway x06.JPGintroduction of electric locomotives, expansion of railway route, and widening of tracks. The railway has been continued to run until 1997 at the time the Miike coal mines was closing.
The rail tracks have been already removed, but the old railroad sleepers and basement bed remained in the some sections like as its original shape. We can see them along the nearby roads.
They remind us the former scene of railway operation at the time.  So this railroad remaining site was added to one of the world heritage as a historical monument because it witnessed the initial technology
Miike- Railway x09.JPGMiike- Railway x07.JPGdevelopment of Miike mins in the Meiji period.

It is known that the special architectural measure was taken for the construction of railways to overcome the intense geographic ups and down in order to make them run smoothly in the hilly landscape with heavy coal cargo. We could observe the railroad ruins passing through the east side of the Miyanohara mine along the way to the Miyanohara mine. The old tunnel made of bricks, old iron bridge, and other ruins would remind us the moment when the railroad had been operating.

 ♣  Visit Miike Port as a Historical monument

The Omuta area, where Miike mines located, was surrounded by the Ariake Sea which Miike- Miike port x02.JPGis known its shallow sea bed near the shore and big tidal change over 6 meters. For this reason it was very difficult for large vessels to anchor there. So the coal shipment from the Miike Miike- Miike port x01.JPGcoal mine formerly had to be done by small boat. Therefore, the loading harbor for coal was required to construct before the coal mines’ advancement. The port was completed in 1905 by facilitating the special opening gate to adjust the tidal change over there. The tidal gate for port was technologically quite difficult and bore huge cost at that time, but Mr. Takma Dan has bravely decided to install this specific facility of port for the future development. It is said that the Miike coal mines could attain a big leap because of this construction of port.

Miike- Miike port x05.JPG       The lock gate is said that the water level in the dock could be kept around 8.5 meter high from the open sea level even at lowest tide. Consequently thanks to the gate, the big cargo ships of 10,000 tons level became possible to harbor in the dock. This completion of port evaluated to make a great contribution in the successful businesses of Miike coal mines’. This Miike port is still used as a departure point for regular vessels and cargo ship from near harbors like nearby Shimabara and others even today.

The lock gate is equipped with two steel gate with double open doors tied to the pier. Miike- guide x01.JPGThe gate is not allowed to access now, but the opening and closing movement of the gate can be observed from the hill beside the sea shore..When I visited, I couldn’t see the movement of the gate door, but I could see the overlook of the port from over the distance hill near the guiding hut..

Miike- Port x01.JPG      The harbor equipped with this kind of lock gate is quite rare and is unique in shape too. Additionally it is said to bear the important role of coal industry development in history. So, this Miike Port was designated as a World Heritage too as a historical monument with the evaluation of the functions which had served and promoted the coal industry in the initial industrial revolution in the Meiji period.

I was convinced that  the Miike Port is  a really valuable site to  show the challenging project for the industrialization  in the Meiji Japan.

(Part 1)  end

See next to the  “Visit the Omuta Coal Industrial Museum”

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Reference

  1. 「三池炭鉱の歴史と技術」(大牟田市石炭産業科学館ガイドブック)2014
  2. 「世界文化遺産―三池炭鉱」ワークプレス刊 2016
  3. 大牟田の近代化産業遺産ホームページ https://www.miikecoalmines.jp/outline.html
  4. 宮原坑跡 大牟田の近代化産業遺産ホームページ https://www.miikecoalmines.jp/miyanohara.html
  5. 宮原抗跡 http://omuta-arao.net/history/tanko/miyahara.html
  6. 旧三池炭鉱専用鉄道敷 https://www.miikecoalmines.jp/rale.html
  7. 三池港 https://www.miike-coalmines.jp/port.html
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